Category Archives: education

What Did Girls Learn at School in the 1930’s?

There is currently a programme airing on the BBC called Back in time for school . The programme takes modern day children back in time to experience school life through seven eras.

When I was going through my grandfather’s things following his death, I found an exercise book from when my grandmother was at school in the 1934. She had kept it because it contained recipes. The subject was domestic subjects and inside is a treasure trove of information about domestic life in those times and what girls learned at school.

When I was at school in the 80’s, we were taught domestic science which was basically cookery. What my grandmother learned, was a complete guide to managing a 1930’s house. This may be because most women in the 1930’s were homemakers, or perhaps some girls were still going into service and needed to know how to do domestic tasks in a large household. The lessons contain really useful things about baking that I wish were still taught at school, like tips and tricks for making cakes and pastry. The remainder of lessons relate to laundry and domestic chores. Here is an example:-

Method for washing white cottons and linens

  1. First put the clothes to soak to loosen the dirt, if possible over night.
  2. Wash them in hot water with plenty of lather
  3. Rinse in boiling water and wring all the soap out.
  4. Mangle them to get the rest of the water out.
  5. Put them on the line to dry
  6. If they dry too much, sprinkle with water and roll them up
  7. Iron, fold edge to edge and then once more.

In other laundry lessons they learned about blueing clothes, washing and ironing prints, washing silks and starching clothes. No wonder they set aside a whole day for washing! It certainly makes you realise how easy domestic life is in the modern day.

Domestic tasks included how to scrub white wood, cleaning brushes and brooms and my personal favourite – daily work in the dining room.

Daily work in the dining room

  1. Open the window
  2. Take out the rugs and flowers. Shake the rugs and change the water in the flowers
  3. Put the table chairs and cushions into the corner of the room and cover with a dust sheet
  4. Put down the hearth cloth and attend to the grate in the following order, Take out the ashes, keep the large to light the fire and empty the small ones into the ash bin. Clean and polish the grate. Lay the fire using newspaper, sticks, ashes and coal, then light it.
  5. Sweep the floor
  6. Remove the dust sheets and dust all the furniture
  7. Polish the floor
  8. Bring back the rugs and flowers and put everything in its proper place
  9. Lay the table

I’m not really sure if this one is meant for any household, or for those in service, I suspect the latter. It explains a little about how clean and tidy my grandmother was and how she always had a particular way of doing things. It uses to drive us nuts when we were kids and we used to think she was too fussy. As much as I may decry the teaching of such things to girls, sometimes it would be useful to have a system to follow to avoid the overwhelm.

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Reflections on the Wonder of Learning Exibition (Reggio Children):What role does technology play in Reggio schools?

It is 13 years since I last visited the Reggio exhibition. Education and childhood have evolved dramatically in that time. I was interested to see how the schools of Reggio Emilia have adapted to meet the interests and fascinations of this new generation.

The projects and learning I observed 13 years ago embraced the physical world. Investigations were made through exploring physical objects and environments, through discussion and experimentation, using art, photography, written and spoken word.  The documentation of more recent projects followed a similar pattern, except for one key difference. The schools of Reggio Emilio are now embracing technology as a tool for learning and artistic expression.  This is not a piecemeal attempt to use technology to teach concepts, but rather a way of using new ways of investigating and deepening knowledge and curiosity, that were not possible before. They have fully embraced it as one of the hundred languages.

Take for example, investigations that occurred during the building of the Malaguzzi centre. The children were taken into the space. They ran and danced around the pillars, making patterns of movement. They were then invited to design their own pillars.  Once the designs were completed, they were projected onto a large screen containing an image of the Malaguzzi centre. The children saw,  that in the image of the Malaguzzi centre, some of the pillars looked smaller than the others. “Were they smaller?” they asked, “or did they just appear that way?” The children’s pillars all looked the same size when they were added to the image, so they used Photoshop to shrink some of the images and make a realistic picture. I have often seen images of how the Reggio schools use projectors to aid learning but the addition of computer technology added a whole new angle to the learning.

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In another project, the children were fascinated by the sound their feet made on the metal stairs.  They decided to give the gift of sound to the stairs. To achieve this, they tested ways to make different sounds by changing shoes and using a variety of movements.  The sounds were then recorded.

The children decided how they might be able to annotate the individual sounds and used the symbols to create a sequenced map of sound. The children drew a picture of the steps and scanned it into the computer.  Using music software, they added individual sounds to each stair to create their desired sequence.

I love the way these projects can take an idea further than they ever could before. In the past the discussion and investigation would have been similar, representation in art would also have been used, but it would not have been possible to make a working model.

Many educators would uphold the Reggio approach as an example of why technology isn’t necessary in early education. Yet, when it is used as one of the hundred languages, it enriches the learning experience without reducing creativity, curiosity or discussion.

It makes me feel sad that schools are often encouraged and expected to use technology more in the classroom, but I rarely see it used in a creative or enriching way.  I mostly see teachers using screens to impart knowledge or show examples.  I have never seen teachers use music software to investigate the science of sound, use photoshop to create art projects or see it in any way as a tool for the children. It has certainly made me contemplate how we might ‘play’ with technology at home too.

The Wonders of Learning is in Boston until November 2018. Then it will move to Maddison WI.

 

Visiting New Zealand with Kids? Try these exciting and educational activities.

Today I have a guest post from Harper Reid.  Harper Reid is a freelance writer from Auckland, New Zealand who has a passion for child learning and development. When she’s not writing, you’ll find her reading through the latest E-learning trends and early childhood activities. You can find more of her work on her Tumblr.  (Disclaimer: this post does not contain sponsored content).

Though I haven’t visited New Zealand myself – it is top of my list (alongside Reggio Emilia) of must visit places in the world. If you are lucky enough to visit New Zealand, you may like to try out some of her suggestions.
Whether you’re from or live outside of New Zealand, vacationing around Aotearoa with kids, is the family adventure for a lifetime. New Zealand’s towns and cities are a veritable treasure trove for tourists – and especially for families. With outdoor experiences and historical sights galore, you won’t have to work too hard to schedule an exciting itinerary for your time in the Land of the Long White Cloud.
1. Explore the country’s national reserves

new zealand park

Image Source Park via Pexels.com

New Zealand’s national parks and reserves make introducing your kids to the country’s topography and native wildlife a dream – and with so many to choose from, you’ll have no shortage of outdoor days. Some of the most beautiful reserves include Abel Tasman National Park on the top of the South Island, Tongariro in the central North Island (particularly stunning in winter), and the stunning Mount Aspiring National Park near Lake Wanaka.

What’s more, the reserves are dotted with informative plaques, native wildlife habitats, and informed guides to get your mini-biologists looking out for specific species of flora and fauna.

2. Go on a heritage tour

Because New Zealand’s recorded history spans just over a couple of centuries, many of the country’s first settler houses and towns are still in pristine condition. This is great news for budding history buffs in the family.

To explore 19th-century New Zealand’s goldrushing history, put Arrowtown in Central Otago  on your map, and consider road-tripping around Hokitika on the West Coast to discover some pioneer-era halfway houses. You’ll also want to schedule in a stop at Waitangi to discover more about Aotearoa’s fraught bicultural past – a great way to introduce your kids to issues of colonisation and land ownership.

3. Get involved in rural life

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Photo credit Gabriel Peter

New Zealanders take great pride in their rustic roots, which is why the national education system makes room for unique outdoor play experiences like Calf Club and Agriculture Days.

Held in the springtime, Calf Club and Agriculture Days are a wonderful way to get up and close with New Zealand’s preeminent dairy and agriculture industry, and will allow your children to see what’s distinctive about an NZ upbringing – namely, the ability to rear your own sheep, calf, or goat, and bring it along for judging!

You might also consider attending an A&P lifestyle show, which is basically a Calf Club Day on a larger scale. Complete with horse and cattle events, shearing, and fun food stalls and rides for all the family to enjoy, you’ll be feeling like a local in no time.

4. Visit one of NZ’s top museums

New Zealand may be small, but its museums are world-quality. Auckland’s Maritime Museum, the Otago Museum, Te Manawa in Palmerston North – near every major centre, will serve up culture and history to feed to your kids.

Wellington’s Te Papa, in particular, is sure to enthral children and adults alike. With exhibitions about everything from World War I, to giant squid, to New Zealand’s Maori culture and heritage, there isn’t much you won’t find at Te Papa. And make sure you experience the earthquake simulator, too.

5. Encounter the Antarctic

newzealand aquarium

unsplash-logoCaroline Hernandez

Probably because of its geographical proximity to the continent, New Zealand is host to a variety of Antarctica-related experiences which you’d be smart to take advantage of whilst you’re in the country. If in Auckland, make a beeline to Kelly Tarlton’s, the world-famous aquarium which offers an “Antarctic Encounter” experience complete with penguins and snow.

Go all-out in the South Island with a trip to Christchurch’s Antarctic Centre, a vast warehouse near the airport which is just about as close as most of us will ever get to Scott’s Base.

Square 1 Art Lesson: Lions Inspired by LeRoy Neiman(1st Grade)

Each year, at school we have a Square 1 Art Fundraiser. Last years theme was water. My Kindergarten and 2nd Grade classes painted themselves under umbrellas in the rain . The previous year 1st grade created oil pastel monsters. This year the theme is ‘Be Wild and Wonder’.

LeRoy Neiman’s lions encapsulate both aspects of the theme perfectly and are bright and bold so fit the criteria for square 1 art projects.

Step 1.

Draw the outline of the lion’s face.

leroy neiman lions

We made sure, the face was a good size and talked about different shapes for the face. This shape was similar to LeRoy Neiman’s lion and makes the lion appear as if it is looking sideways.

Step 2.

Draw the lions eyes, nose, mouth and ears.

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We tried out different shaped eyes and noses. Once the children were happy with their drawings, they outlined them in black sharpie.

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Step 3.

Paint the Mane. I showed them how to make sweeping brushstrokes, starting at the edge of the face and moving outwards.  I encouraged them to use lots of bright colours and to try not to mix them too much.

1st grade art

Some used straight lines

square one art project 1st grade - leroy neiman lions

Others chose curved lines

1st grade square one art lesson - leroy neiman lions

And some let the lines move in different directions.

Step 4.

Paint the face. We looked at Neiman’s use of colour – how he used light colours on the nose and chin and darker colours in the shadows. Again, I encouraged them to keep the colours distinct to make a patchwork effect.

Leroy Neiman lion

Step 5.

Once the paint is dry, outline the features again in sharpie (this helps it to show up when the art work is reproduced by Square 1) and paint a watercolour wash for the background.

square one art lesson inspired by leroy neiman lions

This child didn’t want to outline the lion’s face, preferring to let the face and mane merge into one another.

Square one art project inspired by Leroy neiman lions

Some chose heart shaped faces

Some filled the whole page with patchwork colour

Some added ears

and some preferred lions without ears.

I love how individual they all are. Bright, bold and full of personality – perfect for a square one art project. I can’t wait to see how they look once their are printed onto keepsakes.

 

Art Lesson -Wire Sculpting Inspired by Alexander Calder’s Circus

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For this months art lesson with third grade, I chose to make wire circus performers inspired by Alexander Calder’s circus.  When the children were in 1st grade we made Giacometti inspired wire sculptures. The thicker wire in these sculptures was difficult to bend so I chose thinner wire this time.

The lesson began with the book  Sandy’s Circus by Tanya Lee Stone. This picture book tells the story of Calder’s youth, how he came to enjoy wire sculpture, become an artist and create his moving circus.

The Whitney Museum of American Art have actual video footage of Alexander Calder working his circus.  I showed the children this video from 1927, but there are many others.

For our project we made trapeze artists.  I thought they would look great on a display especially if we could string them across the classroom.

Alexander Calder's Circus wire sculptures

Materials Used

  • wire
  • scissors
  • masking tape
  • markers
  • material scraps
  • wool/yarn
  • paper
  • straws
  • wooden ice cream spoons.

How to make a wire person

  1. Bend the piece of wire in half and twist the top to create a loop for the head.

making a wire person

2. Fold from half way along the remaining wire towards the centre to make arms.

making a wire man

3. Twist the arms, leaving a loop at the end for hands. Twist part of the remaining wire together to form a body.

making a wire person

4. Open the bottom of the wire out to make legs (cut if too long). Add loops for feet.

wire person

5. Cover the surface with masking tape. Add extra layers for padding out specific areas.

Decorating

Once the class had made their basic shapes for their trapeze artists, they were given a variety of materials to create, costumes, hair, faces and props. To join the material to their sculpture, some made holes and threaded pieces through, some used tape or glue and some used the wire to wrap around the material, joining it to their circus performer.

Making the Trapeze

Join two pieces of wire to a wooden ice cream spoon and attach to a straw. The children posed their trapeze artists in different positions and we took pictures to remind ourselves of the poses, when we put them on display.

Alexander Calder's circus trapeze artist

I love the way they turned out and how each child put their individual character into their sculpture.  I’d love to have the time to do a full-scale project and create a whole circus. We could investigate different ways of building and making the models move, perhaps with individual groups working on different aspects of movement. Perhaps some of the kids will be inspired to do this at home?

Disclaimer: This post contains Amazon Affiliate links meaning if you purchase an item via these links I receive a small commission.

Art Lesson (3rd Grade) Wire trapeze artists inspired by Alexander Calder's Circus

If you love this lesson, pin to Pinterest for future reference. Other art lessons can be found on my Art Lessons Board

Have You Ever Eaten Every Part of a Plant? We did on our field trip to Oxbow Farm.

Oxbow Farm is my favourite place for field trips.  The guides are wonderfully entertaining and keep the kids motivated with songs, movement, challenges and a fast paced, hands-on journey through the farm.

The children learn about the farm plants and have an opportunity to investigate, pick and taste everything, whilst being shown respect for the plants and their environment.

They eat leafy plants being careful not to stand on the plants.

picking Kale leaves
Snap off a whole Kale leaf and eat it. “It tastes like broccoli”

They eat seeds, learning about where the seeds come from, how they are spread and dried out in the greenhouse.

seeds drying in the greenhouse
The children collected bean pods in the garden, split the pods and brought the seeds to dry in the greenhouse

taking the beans from their pods

They eat stems. We found tiny celery sticks to try.

They eat flowers. We ate small yellow flowers that tasted like licquorice.

edible flowers

They eat fruit. We ate juicy apples from the tree and found the seeds inside them.

They eat roots. We pulled salad turnips and carrots from the ground, washed them and ate them.

tasting a salad turnip
tasting a salad turnip. “It tastes a bit spicy”

The children found a caterpillar

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Found out that runner bean leaves stick to you

runner beans

and even played hide and seek in the rhubarb

And everyone had a juicy pumpkin to take home.

Storytelling with Shadow Puppets

I recently cleaned out the linen cupboard and gave the kids a huge bag of old sheets to play with. They like to make-up stories and turn them into royal capes or build dens with them. In amongst them was a white sheet. I thought it could be used to build a shadow puppet theatre in the garden.  We have a swing set that isn’t safe to use, so I removed one of the swings and fastened the sheet to the frame.

outdoor shadow puppet theatre

The children and I made puppets from cardboard. The children chose characters and I helped them draw them in silhouette. They collected sticks from the garden, whittled them to smooth them out and stuck the cardboard characters on with tape.

home made shadow puppets

I also found images of hand shadows. I printed and laminated them and stuck them  on the swing set frame for reference.

hand shadows

We had to do a bit of work cutting back the tree branches to make a clear screen, but soon it was ready. The magical stories they have created have been wonderful.  I think this would be a great resource for a school or pre-school to encourage story telling and build the foundations of story writing. You could build it outdoors or inside with a light source behind.

 

Videoing the story showed the children where they needed to improve. They saw that sometimes you couldn’t see the characters well because they were too low or placed at an angle. They also noticed that the size of the puppet changed according to how close to the screen it was.

I love the way my daughter played with accents and voices.  It particularly love the voice of the bird and banana man in the land of the forgotten.

 

Shadows, like mud are a great, free play resource – check out some of our other shadow explorations or follow my shadow and light pinterest board